# PHP Operators

## PHP Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

PHP divides the operators in the following groups:

• Arithmetic operators
• Assignment operators
• Comparison operators
• Increment/Decrement operators
• Logical operators
• String operators
• Array operators
• Conditional assignment operators

## PHP Arithmetic Operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

Operator Name Example Result Show it
+ Addition \$x + \$y Sum of \$x and \$y Try it »
Subtraction \$x – \$y Difference of \$x and \$y Try it »
* Multiplication \$x * \$y Product of \$x and \$y Try it »
/ Division \$x / \$y Quotient of \$x and \$y Try it »
% Modulus \$x % \$y Remainder of \$x divided by \$y Try it »
** Exponentiation \$x ** \$y Result of raising \$x to the \$y’th power Try it »

## PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is “=”. It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

Assignment Same as… Description Show it
x = y x = y The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right Try it »
x += y x = x + y Addition Try it »
x -= y x = x – y Subtraction Try it »
x *= y x = x * y Multiplication Try it »
x /= y x = x / y Division Try it »
x %= y x = x % y Modulus Try it »

## PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

Operator Name Example Result Show it
== Equal \$x == \$y Returns true if \$x is equal to \$y Try it »
=== Identical \$x === \$y Returns true if \$x is equal to \$y, and they are of the same type Try it »
!= Not equal \$x != \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y Try it »
<> Not equal \$x <> \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y Try it »
!== Not identical \$x !== \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y, or they are not of the same type Try it »
> Greater than \$x > \$y Returns true if \$x is greater than \$y Try it »
< Less than \$x < \$y Returns true if \$x is less than \$y Try it »
>= Greater than or equal to \$x >= \$y Returns true if \$x is greater than or equal to \$y Try it »
<= Less than or equal to \$x <= \$y Returns true if \$x is less than or equal to \$y Try it »
<=> Spaceship \$x <=> \$y Returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero, depending on if \$x is less than, equal to, or greater than \$y. Introduced in PHP 7. Try it »

## PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable’s value.

The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable’s value.

Operator Name Description Show it
++\$x Pre-increment Increments \$x by one, then returns \$x Try it »
\$x++ Post-increment Returns \$x, then increments \$x by one Try it »
–\$x Pre-decrement Decrements \$x by one, then returns \$x Try it »
\$x– Post-decrement Returns \$x, then decrements \$x by one Try it »

## PHP Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

Operator Name Example Result Show it
and And \$x and \$y True if both \$x and \$y are true Try it »
or Or \$x or \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true Try it »
xor Xor \$x xor \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true, but not both Try it »
&& And \$x && \$y True if both \$x and \$y are true Try it »
|| Or \$x || \$y True if either \$x or \$y is true Try it »
! Not !\$x True if \$x is not true Try it »

## PHP String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.

Operator Name Example Result Show it
. Concatenation \$txt1 . \$txt2 Concatenation of \$txt1 and \$txt2 Try it »
.= Concatenation assignment \$txt1 .= \$txt2 Appends \$txt2 to \$txt1 Try it »

## PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

Operator Name Example Result Show it
+ Union \$x + \$y Union of \$x and \$y Try it »
== Equality \$x == \$y Returns true if \$x and \$y have the same key/value pairs Try it »
=== Identity \$x === \$y Returns true if \$x and \$y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types Try it »
!= Inequality \$x != \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y Try it »
<> Inequality \$x <> \$y Returns true if \$x is not equal to \$y Try it »
!== Non-identity \$x !== \$y Returns true if \$x is not identical to \$y Try it »

## PHP Conditional Assignment Operators

The PHP conditional assignment operators are used to set a value depending on conditions: